instruments of the bateria
webpage updated: Sun 21 Jul 2024

Here are the main instruments of the Bateria. The images shown are not exactly correct, but give you a good idea.



Like a set of cow bells and struck with a stick.




The Caixa (pronounced casha) is a small snare drum. The name comes from Caixa de guerra (war box) used by the military. It is played - either at waist level or at chest level held in a crooked arm - using two sticks.




A shaker with small metal jingles.




Played by rubbing the small stick attached to the inside of the top skin.




A wide tamborine with metal jingles around the perimeter and played with the hands.


Repinique / Repique


Played with one stick and one hand, one of its functions is to signal and call in the other players.




The bass drum played with a single beater in one hand alternating with the other hand used directly on the skin to damp/control the sound.

There are three groups of surdos with tuned to different pitches:
The 1st Surdo gives the main (second stronger) samba beat or marcação.
The 2nd surdo is the counterpoint to the 1st surdo.
The 3rd surdo improvises and plays around in between the other two.


This has no jingles and is held in one hand which twists the instrument whilst it is struck with a special split stick held in the other hand.